Thursday, February 21, 2013
PUBLICATIONS: New CAPRi Working Papers on Climate, Gender, and Community-Based Legal Aid
We have recently published several new CAPRi Working Papers you may find interesting. Please see the abstracts below and share with any colleagues who may be interested. Browse the full selection of CAPRi Working papers here.
CAPRi Working Paper 109: Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change: A Theoretical Framework, Overview of Key Issues and Discussion Of Gender Differentiated Priorities and Participation. Elizabeth Bryan and Julia Behrman.
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals of community-based adaptation (CBA) efforts. To start, it develops and describes a framework on adaptation to climate change used as the basis for this research. The paper then defines the characteristics or principles of CBA and describes why it is an essential part of the adaptation process. Following this, it identifies the limitations of or constraints to CBA in practice, including the need to link CBA to the larger adaptation and development processes and discusses institutional arrangements for CBA. The paper also explores institutional barriers to successful adaptation at the community level in more detail, focusing on issues of participation in group-based approaches to adaptation and the extent to which men and women have different priorities or needs for adaptation. The paper concludes with observations on effective types of group-based approaches to CBA and recommendations on how to promote equal participation in community responses to climate change in order to ensure that both men and women increase their resilience to climate change and to maximize the effectiveness of adaptation efforts. [Download here]
CAPRi Working Paper 108: Evaluation of Grassroots Community-Based Legal Aid Activities in Uganda and Tanzania. Julia Behrman, Lucy Billings, and Amber Peterman.
Progressive legislative actions in Uganda and Tanzania have improved women's legal rights to land, however significant gender disparities persist in access, control, inheritance, and ownership of land at the grassroots level. One promising mechanism to improve the implementation of laws is through Community-based Legal Aid (CBLA) programs, which are typically designed as pro-poor to enhance legal empowerment of marginalized groups. CBLA programs targeting gender and land-rights issues aim to improve knowledge of existing laws, attitudes toward women's ability to own or control land and practice on how land is administrated and distributed in rural communities. To date, there is little rigorous evidence on how effective these programs are in meeting these objectives. A qualitative study of CBLA programs in Uganda and Tanzania was conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to assess the efficacy of CBLA activities, understand challenges faced by CBLA implementing organizations, and document opportunities and potential for scaling-up. Results demonstrate clear demand for enhanced CBLA services in program areas. Policy implications point to a number of opportunities for scale-up efforts from the programmatic level to the national policy level to improve the coverage and quality of CBLA services. [Download here]
CAPRi Working Paper 107: Institutions for Agricultural Mitigation: Potential and Challenges in Four Countries. Elizabeth Bryan, Alessandro De Pinto, Claudia Ringler, Samuel Asuming-Brempong, Mohamed Bendaoud, Luís Artur, Nicia Givá, Dao The Anh, Nguyen Ngoc Mai, Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere, Daniel Bruce Sarpong, Khalid El-Harizi, Teunis van Rheenen, and Jenna Ferguson.
The agriculture sector has great potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions through changes in agricultural management and land use. However, the technical potential for agricultural mitigation has yet to translate into actual emission reductions due to considerable constraints to the generation of emission offsets through agricultural projects. These constraints include national and subnational policies and institutional structures as well as institutional and resource constraints at the local level, such as lack of knowledge, organizational capacity, and start-up finance. This paper explores the institutional barriers to agricultural mitigation in four developing countries: Ghana, Morocco, Mozambique, and Vietnam. The findings show that the institutional environment greatly influences the capacity to engage in agricultural mitigation activities. In particular, the centrally planned system in Vietnam provides little space for local, community-based organizations to act collectively around issues of mutual interest, making it difficult to engage numerous smallholders in agricultural mitigation projects. At the same time, government-led mitigation projects may be more feasible in Vietnam compared to the African case studies, where the governments lack well-defined and coordinated strategies and regulations to support mitigation. Governance of contractual obligations is also a challenge to agricultural mitigation. While several organizations in the case study countries have relevant experience for organizing smallholder farmers, most of these organizations lack technical expertise in carbon markets, have limited knowledge of strategies for agricultural mitigation, and lack resources needed for start-up and implementation of mitigation projects. [Download here]
CAPRi Working Paper 106: A Literature Review of the Gender-Differentiated Impacts of Climate Change on Women's and Men's Assets and Well-Being in Developing Countries. Amelia H. X. Goh.
Climate change increasingly affects the livelihoods of people, and poor people experience especially negative impacts given their lack of capacity to prepare for and cope with the effects of a changing climate. Among poor people, women and men may experience these impacts differently. This review presents and tests two hypotheses on the gender-differentiated impacts of climate change on women and men in developing countries. The first hypothesis is that climate-related events affect men's and women's well-being and assets differently. The second hypothesis is that climate-related shocks affect women more negatively than men. With limited evidence from developing countries, this review shows that climate change affects women's and men's assets and well-being differently in six impact areas: (i) impacts related to agricultural production, (ii) food security, (iii) health, (iv) water and energy resources, (v) climate-induced migration and conflict, and (vi) climate-related natural disasters. In the literature reviewed, women seem to suffer more negative impacts of climate change in terms of their assets and well-being because of social and cultural norms regarding gender roles and their lack of access to and control of assets, although there are some exceptions. Empirical evidence in this area is limited, patchy, varied, and highly contextual in nature, which makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions. Findings here are indicative of the complexities in the field of gender and climate change, and signal that multidisciplinary research is needed to further enhance the knowledge base on the differential climate impacts on women's and men's assets and well-being in agricultural and rural settings, and to understand what mechanisms work best to help women and men in poor communities become more climate resilient. [Download here]